Subgaleal Hemorrhage

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Subgaleal hemorrhage, also known as subgaleal hematoma or SGH, is a rare but serious condition that can occur in newborns. It happens when blood accumulates on the outside of a baby’s skull, in the space between the periosteum, which is the membrane that covers the baby’s skull, and the fibrous tissue that covers the membrane, the scalp aponeurosis. This type of brain bleed can lead to a baby experiencing seizures, neonatal encephalopathy, or in worst-case scenarios, death.

If there is trauma to the baby’s head during the labor and delivery process, they could experience a subgaleal hemorrhage. For instance, if a baby’s head is dragged, compressed, or pulled in delivery, that would increase the chances of SGH occurring. The improper use of birthing instruments, especially vacuum extractors, typically causes SGH. If the vacuum is used when the baby is premature or the doctor improperly attaches the vacuum extractor’s suction cup on the child’s head, then that could lead to many issues. Leaving the cup on the child’s head for too long or using excessive force with birth instruments like the vacuum extractor or forceps could also cause SGH.

Risk factors for SGH include a prolonged labor, a male baby, an overweight baby, a premature birth, macrosomia, a first-time pregnancy, or cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD).

Symptoms of Subgaleal Hemorrhage

If a baby has SGH, then these signs and symptoms could occur:

  • Decreasing blood pressure
  • Respiratory distress
  • Diffuse fluctuating swelling of the head
  • Diminished tone
  • Fast heart rate
  • Increasing head circumference
  • Lethargy
  • Decreased urinary output
  • Prolonged bleeding
  • Seizures

A baby that is not treated properly could end up developing other health issues such as intellectual disabilities, developmental delays, hydrocephalus, seizure disorders, brain damage, and cerebral palsy. Signs of these conditions include:

  • Inability to develop motor skills
  • Not reaching milestones at a certain age
  • Seizures
  • Difficulty feeding
  • Stiff muscles
  • Involuntary movements
  • Paralysis on one side of the body
  • Muscle spasms

A doctor will need to diagnose a baby with SGH and/or further health issues in order for the baby to get on a treatment plan. Treatment could happen in the hospital as soon as the baby is born and throughout the rest of their life.

Treatment for Subgaleal Hemorrhage

A baby born with SGH will have to be monitored continuously for a certain period of time in order to stabilize them. They may have to get a blood transfusion or volume resuscitation in order to recover. A baby may also need to undergo blood studies to determine whether or not they also have a bleeding disorder.

Treatment for issues caused by SGH will be different depending on the condition a baby has. For instance, if a baby has a seizure disorder, they may need anticonvulsant medications. If a baby has a developmental disorder, they might also have to go on medication and attend therapy sessions and support groups. A baby with cerebral palsy could require surgery, medical equipment, and anticonvulsants and sedatives. Physical and occupational therapy could be helpful, too.

How Do I Know if Medical Malpractice Caused Subgaleal Hemorrhage?

There’s no way to know if medical malpractice caused SGH until you call an experienced birth injury lawyer. They will assess your case and let you know if they believe negligence occurred. Doctors make mistakes all the time, but it doesn’t necessarily amount to negligence. However, with strong enough proof, perhaps your lawyer could prove that medical malpractice did occur.

For example, perhaps you believe your doctor used the vacuum extractor with excessive force or when it wasn’t required in order to deliver your baby. Maybe they did not monitor your baby properly during your labor. The only way to determine if your case is valid is to contact a birth injury lawyer and tell them the facts about what happened.

How Much Will I Receive From a Subgaleal Hemorrhage Settlement?

If you have a legitimate SGH medical malpractice claim, you could receive economic and non-economic damages for:

  • Medical bills
  • Loss of companionship and enjoyment of life
  • Pain and suffering
  • Future medical care
  • Loss of earning capacity

Your birth injury lawyer will calculate your economic and non-economic damages to come up with a settlement that will cover your costs. The higher your damages are, the higher your settlement could end up being.

Settlement Offers in a Subgaleal Hemorrhage Case

The way the legal process works is once you get in touch with a birth injury malpractice lawyer, they will ask you what evidence you have to support your claim. You may have your medical records and bills, photographs of your baby’s injury, and witness statements from people who saw what happened. If you don’t have some evidence you need, your lawyer could help you gather it.

Then, your birth injury lawyer will make contact with the defendant, your doctor, and attempt to work out a fair settlement offer for you. The defendant may settle right away, try to negotiate a lower settlement, or reject giving you any sort of settlement. At any point, you can ask your lawyer to renegotiate. If your doctor still rejects your offer, then you can take them to court.

Keep in mind that it’s difficult to prove medical malpractice. If it was easy, and anyone could sue their doctor at any time, then nobody would want to become a healthcare professional. You need strong enough evidence to show that medical malpractice did occur and your baby is now suffering from an injury because of it.

Why Reach Out to a Birth Injury Lawyer?

A birth injury lawyer is here for you in your time of need. You just don’t have the energy to fight your doctor, even though you know you’re owed compensation. Your lawyer will take care of the litigation part for you so you can help your baby recover and ensure they are as happy and comfortable as possible.

Subgaleal Hemorrhage Birth Injury Attorneys

If you believe that your baby experienced SGH and/or other birth injuries due to medical malpractice, then it’s time to get in touch with he birth injury lawyers at Gilman & Bedigian. They will fight for you every step of the way to get you the compensation you deserve. Don’t hesitate: Reach out to us today.

Contact Gilman & Bedigian 24/7 for a free consultation at (800) 529-6162.

Subgaleal Hemorrhage

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A subgaleal hemorrhage is a type of brain bleed in newborns. Brain bleeds and hemorrhages may not be visible but they present a serious danger to the baby. Serious bleeding inside the head can put the baby at risk of serious injury, encephalopathy, or death. 

Bleeding in the skull can be caused by trauma, including head trauma during delivery. These types of injuries can increase with the use of extraction devices, like vacuums or forceps. When a doctor improperly delivers the child, causing serious injury, the doctor should be held responsible for their actions. A medical malpractice lawsuit can help the family recover damages to cover the costs of care, medical bills, and emotional damages.

What is a Subgaleal Hemorrhage in Newborns?

A subgaleal hemorrhage is bleeding in the skull between the periosteum layer and the scalp. Subgaleal hematoma (SGH) is a serious complication where blood accumulates in the skull. A hematoma can pose a risk to the infant by putting pressure on the sensitive brain tissue, causing damage to brain cells. 

Too much blood in the skull can also take away blood from supplying oxygen to the brain and other vital organs. Subgaleal hemorrhage can lead to hypovolemia. Up to a quarter of babies who require neonatal intensive care for subgaleal hemorrhage die from the condition. There may also be a higher rate of disability associated with severe SGH which causes cerebral injury. 

The consequences of skull hemorrhages can be severe. It may cause brain damage, developmental delays, seizures, physical disabilities, cerebral palsy, and other medical problems. Early recognition of a hemorrhage and proper treatment are vital in reducing the extent of damage done and reducing the likelihood of permanent injury. 

Bleeding inside the head is categorized by where the bleeding occurs. Some of the bleeding injuries involve traumatic head injuries for infants include: 

  • Cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding within the brain)
  • Intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding inside the skull)
  • Epidural hemorrhage (bleeding in the dura mater)
  • Subgaleal hemorrhage (bleeding between the epicranial aponeurosis and the periosteum)
  • Subdural hemorrhage (bleeding between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane)
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding in the space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater)
  • Caput succedaneum (bleeding between the skin and the epicranial aponeurosis

Dangers of Extraction Devices in Delivery

A common cause of subgaleal hematoma and other bleeding in the skull is extraction devices during delivery. Extraction devices include a vacuum extractor and obstetrical forceps. The vacuum extractor, or “ventouse,” is used to aid in delivery of the baby. The vacuum or forceps can be used in a difficult delivery, including when: 

  • The mother is no longer able to help push,
  • Secondary stages of labor have gone on for an extended period, 
  • There are signs of fetal distress, or
  • Maternal illness where bearing down could risk the mother’s health. 

About 5% of newborns in the US are born with an assisted delivery, or 1 in 20 babies. Health organizations prefer the use of vacuum extractors over forceps for safety reasons. However, any assistive device could pose a risk of traumatic head injury to the child. When a vacuum extractor is used improperly, it can cause head injuries to the child, including subgaleal hemorrhage. 

Causes of Neonatal Subgaleal Hemorrhage

Most cases of neonatal subgaleal hemorrhage occur with assisted devices during delivery. According to the Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, the “association between vacuum extraction and SGH is well described.”

In 1998, the FDA issued a public health advisory because of the 500% increase in reported morbidity and mortality from subgaleal hemorrhage after vacuum extraction deliveries. Canada issued a similar advisory the following year. 

Signs and Symptoms of Subgaleal Hemorrhage

The physical signs of possible hematoma or hemorrhage in the skull include swelling on the head. A mass may develop over the scalp with superficial bruising. The swelling may begin within 12 to 72 hours after delivery. In severe cases, swelling may begin immediately after delivery. 

A baby with SGH may present with hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock is a type of hypovolemic shock. In neonatal subgaleal hemorrhage, shock may be caused by a drop in fluid volume that impairs the body’s ability to pump blood through the circulatory system. 

Blood tests may show hyperbilirubinemia caused by reabsorption of blood. When bilirubin, a substance in the blood, builds up to very high levels it can then spread into a baby’s brain tissues, leading to kernicterus and permanent brain damage. Blood tests may also show lower levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit. 

Subgaleal Hemorrhage Treatment and Outcome

Early diagnosis and treatment can be key to recovery. If SGH is immediately identified and treated, the child has a good chance of recovery with no long-term complications. However, the more extensive the injury and the longer the hemorrhage continues before treatment can increase the risk of serious brain injury or death. 

Treatment involves close monitoring of the baby, looking for signs of hemorrhagic shock, jaundice, and hyperbilirubinemia. If the baby’s fluid volume is too low, fluids may be administered. In some cases, blood transfusion and phototherapy may be required. 

Subgaleal Hemorrhage and Signs of Medical Malpractice

Subgaleal hemorrhage may be caused by medical malpractice. If a doctor improperly uses a vacuum extractor on a baby, it may cause head trauma and bleeding in the scalp. In some cases, when a doctor made a mistake, they may try and avoid responsibility, which could delay treatment and could make the problem worse. 

In some deliveries, the use of a vacuum extractor may be the wrong way to deliver the baby. Contraindications for vacuum extraction include: 

  • Fetal prematurity (<34 weeks of gestation)
  • Fetal scalp trauma
  • Unengaged head
  • Incomplete dilation
  • Active bleeding
  • Suspected macrosomia
  • Cephalopelvic disproportion
  • Breech or other nonvertex presentations

Using a vacuum suction device during delivery when medical standards are against such devices may be a deviation from the standard of care. If the doctor breaches the standard of care which causes injury to the baby or mother, the doctor may be liable for damages. A medical malpractice lawsuit will allow the injury victims to recover medical costs, pain and suffering, and other costs associated with a medical injury. 

Philadelphia Birth Injury Attorneys

At Gilman & Bedigian, we will use our experience, knowledge, and dedication to investigate birth injuries caused by medical malpractice. Our aggressive Philadelphia trial lawyers have helped Pennsylvania families recover millions of dollars in compensation for birth injury negligence. Contact us online or call our law office at (800) 529-6162 for a free consultation.

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